The very secret of the success of the Academy is its research
since inception. It is conducting research in Sanskrit Speech
Synthesis, Natural Language Processing, Machine Translation, Sanskrit
teaching through computer media etc., for the last 8 years. This
is one of the proofs of diversification from traditional research
to scientific research through computers. It is also busy in surging
into the field of Information Technology (IT). Besides, it is
also collecting scientific information available in Sanskrit texts.
It has also undertaken several science oriented projects sponsored
by some well known organizations such as Indian Space Research
Organization, HRD etc.
Blazing A Trail
Since Melkote being
the place where Ramanujacharya resided for 12 years and propagated
the Visistadvaita philosophy, naturally most of the research work
in the Academy centers around Vedanta and its relevance to the
present. The broad themes for research are:
examination and analysis of selected texts
reviews of the works of individual authors
study of the various systems of Vedanta philosophy
of unpublished works
of the biography of Acharyas
theme, projects are drawn up and a team of scholars work on the
project. The projects, which have thus been undertaken by the Academy,
KRIYA - Vibrantly Active
Since the late sixties, Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers
have been trying to build computer systems that can perform Natural
Language Processing (NLP); but idioms, rhetoric, ambiguities and
other idiosyncrasies that abound in natural languages have proved
to be a formidable obstacle.
On the other hand, Sanskrit linguists, grammarians and philosophers
of olden days have addressed many of these complex issues involved
in the understanding of natural language. To examine the possibility
of seeking solutions for these problems, a conference on Knowledge
Representation in Sanskrit (KRIS) was held in Bangalore in 1986.
A paper presented by Rick Briggs, an AI researcher in US, observed
"certain problems of concern in NLP have either been thought
about or actually solved in the old tradition of Sanskrit grammar
and philosophy..... If the grammatical view is not examined, current
AI work will go on unnecessarily re - inventing a wheel millennia
This catalyzed the Academy to take up the Kriya Research Project
which has the sanction of Department of Electronics, Government
of India. It has been undertaken to sharpen our understanding
of the essential features of the grammatical system employed in
Sanskrit language under the guidance of senior Vyakarana vidvans.
While working out procedures for the software, the systems analysts
depend heavily on the shastras seeking the guiding principles
for preparing the software. The
II phase of this project called Sabdabodha was taken up
NLP, whether the process is for Machine Translation or for other
modes of handling language, has to begin with the parsing of sentences
i.e. identifying, classifying and interconnecting the words in
a sentence. Hence the Academy developed modules for identification,
generation of different forms and analysis of verbs, participles
and nouns in Sanskrit.
The following are the software that are being developed in this
connection. These software's use the GIST technology developed
by C- DAC for multi - Indian scripts.
Developing this software is the crux of the Sabdabodha Project.
The technique of disambiguating the meaning of a sentence according
to the Navina Nyaya system is called the Sabdabodha.
At present the program is capable of parsing a valid sentence
and identifying a factually incorrect sentence. Efforts are on
to make this more comprehensive, at first by using a user - interface
and getting rid of this later on.
consists of Noun (Subanta) Generator and analyser. Having a lexicon
consisting of words in Amarakosa, the generator is capable of
generating forms in different cases and numbers (or any specific
form) of the given word.
The Analyser identifies the ending (anta), the gender (linga)
and base (pratipadika), Case (Vibhakti) and number (vachana) of
the given noun. It also displays multiple identifications.
consists of Verb (Tinanta) Generator and Analyser. With the generator,
it is possible for the computer to generate all forms or any specified
form of the given verb root. The Analyser identifies the Conjugation
(Gana), Padi, Transitivity (Karma), It, Mode (Dhatuvidha), Voice
(Prayoga), Tense (Lakara), Person(Purusa) and number (Vacana)
of the given verb root. Multiple identifications are also displayed.
consists of Participle (Krdanta) Generator and Analyser. The Generator
is capable of generating 11 types of Krdanta forms, in 7+1 cases,
three numbers and three genders. The Analyser identifies any form
of the given Krd and gives the root, meaning (artha), Mode (Dhatuvidha),
deciderative root (sanidhatu), Conjugation (Gana), Padi Transitivity
(Karma), It, type of Krdanta, suffix (pratyaya), ending (anta),
gender(linga), base(pratipadika), case (vibhakti) and number (Vacana).
combines two words as per Paninian rules handling exceptions carefully.
It gives the effected sandhi type and also the Paninian rule governing
it. It is a rule - based software.
The project has given raise to some spin - off software modules
which are as follows:
It is a synonym
retriever in Sanskrit which also provides etymology (vyutpatti),
grammar (Nispatti) and usage (prayoga). It has a sufficiently
large database based on the Amarakosa, Nirukta and Panini's Astadhyayi.
Its merit lies in its power to compile and provide all information
just at the press of a key.
It is a multilingual
electronic dictionary versatile in several languages - Sanskrit,
Hindi, Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam and English. Any of these
can be chosen as the source language and the other six automatically
become the target languages. This is under preparation.
This is a
completely rule - based software. Based on Vrttaratnakara, it
gives the metric analysis of any stanza, (at present only in samavrtta)
with the number of laghus and gurus and their triplets (ganas),
Chandas, Vrtta and the definition (laksana) for the particular
It is a trilingual
electronic law dictionary, the languages handled being English,
Hindi and Kannada.
This is a
contribution of the Academy to the Academy to the field of Kannada.
Based on Paninian method, this module generates the different
forms of verbs in Kannada. It handles two modes ordinary verbal
form voices, two speeches, tenses and modes, assertive and interrogative,
affirmative and negative, etc.
It is a synonym
- retriever in Tamil based on Namadipanighantu.